The default Azure Functions runtime comes with quite a lot of bindings and triggers which enable you to create a highly scalable solution within the Azure environment. You can connect to service buses, storage accounts, Event Grid, Cosmos DB, HTTP calls, etc.

However, sometimes this isn’t enough.
That’s why the Azure Functions team has released functionality which enables you to create your own custom bindings. This should make it easy for you to read and write data to any service or location you need to, even if it’s not supported out of the box.

There is some documentation available on how to create a custom binding at this time and even a nice sample on GitHub to get you started. The thing is…this documentation and samples are written for Version 1 of the Azure Functions runtime. If you want to use custom bindings in Azure Functions V2, you need to do some additional stuff. There are still changes being made on this subject, so it’s quite possible the current workflow will be broken in the future.

For this post, I’ve created a sample binding which is capable of reading data from a local disk. Nothing fancy and definitely not something you want in production, but it’s easy to test and shows you how the stuff has to be set up.

The first step you need to take is to create a new class library (NetStandard 2) in which you will add all the files necessary to create a custom binding. This class library is necessary because it’s loaded inside the runtime via reflection magic.

Once you’ve created this class library, you can continue creating a `Binding`, which is also mentioned in the docs. A binding can look like this.

[Extension("MySimpleBinding")]
public class MySimpleBinding : IExtensionConfigProvider
{
    public void Initialize(ExtensionConfigContext context)
    {
        var rule = context.AddBindingRule<MySimpleBindingAttribute>();
        rule.BindToInput<MySimpleModel>(BuildItemFromAttribute);
    }

    private MySimpleModel BuildItemFromAttribute(MySimpleBindingAttribute arg)
    {
        string content = default(string);
        if (File.Exists(arg.Location))
        {
            content = File.ReadAllText(arg.Location);
        }

        return new MySimpleModel
        {
            FullFilePath = arg.Location,
            Content = content
        };
    }
}

Implement the `IExtensionConfigProvider` and specify a proper `BindingRule`.

And of course, we shouldn’t forget to add an attribute.

[Binding]
[AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Parameter | AttributeTargets.ReturnValue)]
public class MySimpleBindingAttribute : Attribute
{
    [AutoResolve]
    public string Location { get; set; }
}

Because we’re using a self-defined model over here called `MySimpleModel` it makes sense to add this to your class library as well. I like to keep it simple, so the model only has 2 properties.

public class MySimpleModel
{
    public string FullFilePath { get; set; }
    public string Content { get; set; }
}

According to the docs, this is enough to use the new custom binding in your Azure Functions like so.

[FunctionName("CustomBindingFunction")]
public static IActionResult RunCustomBindingFunction(
    [HttpTrigger(AuthorizationLevel.Anonymous, "get", "post", Route = "custombinding/{name}")]
    HttpRequest req,
    string name,
    [MySimpleBinding(Location = "%filepath%\\{name}")]
    MySimpleModel simpleModel)
{
    return (ActionResult) new OkObjectResult(simpleModel.Content);
}

But, this doesn’t work. Or at least, not at this moment.

When starting the Azure Function emulator you’ll see something similar to the following.

[3-1-2019 08:51:37] Error indexing method 'CustomBindingFunction.Run'

[3-1-2019 08:51:37] Microsoft.Azure.WebJobs.Host: Error indexing method 'CustomBindingFunction.Run'. Microsoft.Azure.WebJobs.Host: Cannot bind parameter 'simpleModel' to type MySimpleModel. Make sure the parameter Type is supported by the binding. If you're using binding extensions (e.g. Azure Storage, ServiceBus, Timers, etc.) make sure you've called the registration method for the extension(s) in your startup code (e.g. builder.AddAzureStorage(), builder.AddServiceBus(), builder.AddTimers(), etc.).

[3-1-2019 08:51:37] Function 'CustomBindingFunction.Run' failed indexing and will be disabled.

[3-1-2019 08:51:37] No job functions found. Try making your job classes and methods public. If you're using binding extensions (e.g. Azure Storage, ServiceBus, Timers, etc.) make sure you've called the registration method for the extension(s) in your startup code (e.g. builder.AddAzureStorage(), builder.AddServiceBus(), builder.AddTimers(), etc.).

Not what you’d expect when following the docs line by line.

The errors do give a valid pointer though. It’s telling us we should have registered the `Type` on startup via the `IWebJobsBuilder builder`. Makes sense, if you’re using Azure App Service WebJobs.
Seeing Azure Functions are based on Azure App Services, it kind of makes sense there’s also some/a lot of shared logic between Azure Functions and Azure Web Jobs.

So, what do you need to do now?
Well, add an `IWebJobsStartup` implementation and make sure to add your extension to the `IWebJobsBuilder`. The startup class should look a bit like this.

[assembly: WebJobsStartup(typeof(MySimpleBindingStartup))]
namespace MyFirstCustomBindingLibrary
{
    public class MySimpleBindingStartup : IWebJobsStartup
    {
        public void Configure(IWebJobsBuilder builder)
        {
            builder.AddMySimpleBinding();
        }
    }
}

To make stuff pretty, I’ve created an extension method to add my simple binding.

public static IWebJobsBuilder AddMySimpleBinding(this IWebJobsBuilder builder)
{
    if (builder == null)
    {
        throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(builder));
    }

    builder.AddExtension<MySimpleBinding>();
    return builder;
}

Having added these classes to your class library will make sure the binding will get picked up via reflection when starting up the Azure Function. Don’t forget to add the assembly-attribute at the top of the startup class. If you do, the binding won’t get resolved (ask me how I know…).

If you want to see all of the code and how this interacts with each other, please check out my GitHub repository on this subject. Or, if this post has helped you feel free to add a ‘Thank you’-comment or upvote my question (and answer) on Stack Overflow.

comments powered by Disqus